Defining Chemical Bonding, Types of Chemical Bond, Chemistry Assignment Help

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Defining Chemical Bonding

Chemical bond is an attraction b/w atom that allows the formation or generation of chemical substances which contain two or more atoms. The bond is caused by the electromagnetic force attraction b/w opposite charges, either between nuclei and electrons, or as the result of a dipole attraction. The chemical bonds strength varies considerably; there are "strong bonds" such as ionic bonds or covalent and "weak bonds" i.e. dipole-dipole interactions and hydrogen bonding.

The opposite charges attract by an electromagnetic force, the positively charged protons in the nucleus and the negatively charged electrons orbiting the nucleus attract each other. An electron positioned b/w two nuclei are attracted to both of them. The most stable configuration of electrons and nuclei is one in which the electrons spend more time b/w nuclei and anywhere else in space. Thus electrons cause the nuclei to be attracted to each other, and this attraction makes the bond. This assembly cannot collapse to a size dictated by the volumes of these individual particles. The matter wave nature of electrons and their smaller mass, they occupy a larger amount of volume with compared with the nuclei, and volume occupied by electrons keeps the atomic nuclei relatively far apart, as compared with the size of the nuclei.

In short, strong chemical bonding is concerned or associated with the transfer or sharing of electrons b/w the participating atoms. The atoms in metals, crystals, molecules and diatomic gases— indeed most of the physical environment around these— these are held together by chemical bonds, which dictate the matter structure.

Main Types of Chemical Bonds

Covalent Bond: pair of electrons or single electron drew into space b/w the two atomic nuclei.

The electrons (negatively charged) are attracted to the positive charges of both nuclei, instead of their own. This is caused the repulsion b/w the two nuclei (positively charged) of the two atoms, and attraction holds the two nuclei in a fixed equilibrium configuration, even though they will vibrate at equilibrium position. In short covalent bonding involves the sharing of negatively charged electrons in which the nuclei (positively charged) of two or more atoms simultaneously attract the electrons that are being shared.

Polar covalent bond: In this case one or more electrons are unequally shared b/w two nuclei.

An ionic bond, the bonding electron is not shared, instead of shared they are transferred. Such type of bond, the outer atomic orbital of one atom has a vacancy that allows addition of one or more electrons. Thus newly added electrons potentially occupy a lower energy-state than they experience in a different atom. One nucleus offers a more tightly bound position to an electron than does another nucleus, with the result that one atom may transfer an electron to the other. This transfer causes one atom to be assumed a net positive charge, and the other to be assumed net negative charge. The bond then results from electrostatic attraction b/w atoms, and the atoms become negatively and positive charged ions.

Metallic Bond: All bonds can be defined or explained by quantum theory, but, in short, simplification rules allow chemists to predict the directionality, strength and polarity of bonds.

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