In 2015, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) both drew to a close. International debate is happening on current progress on these frameworks in the context of Disaster Resource Management, (DRM). In 2011, 80% of global disaster-related losses occurred in the Asia and Pacific region. The losses caused in Asia and the Pacific in 2001-2011 was US$60 billion (UNESCAP database 1).
Recently, the events in Japan, the PRC, Haiti, and the United States (US) have stimulated discussion of massive cascading disasters, or "compound disasters," according to Kawata (2011). Compound disasters are multiple sequential events producing a compounded damage, greater than individual disasters occurring independently. This definition was prompted by the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 2011 as well as a possible Tokyo metropolitan earthquake causing widespread damage across the Tokyo region. Kawata equates compound disasters with catastrophic events. The increased occurrence of multiple large disasters is consequential to increases in the population.
Nuclear energy as a source of power since the 1960s has enabled industrial growth in many countries. Errors in design, location, or operation of these facilities have resulted in catastrophes at Three Mile Island (No loss of life, minimal radiation - hardly the same scale), Chernobyl, and Fukushima Daiichi. These aging facilities are located in areas of seismic hazard and will continue to be potential hazards for several generations. Dangers are the release of nuclear material, loss of power generation capacity, with resulting economic loss, biological and food contamination, and mass migrations, (Disaster Risk Management in Asia and the Paci?c Issues Paper April 2013). It is, therefore, imperative that alternatives be made available.
Cultural affinities and shared geophysical conditions within Asia-Pacific are positive attributes for DRM. Shared interests are important among neighboring countries in critical areas like river basins, tropical cyclone zones, and active seismic locations. After over a quarter million fatalities in the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, an international tsunami warning system was installed by various organizations and littoral countries
Much progress in prediction models and alert systems has been made, especially for climatic disasters using geographic and climate data (e.g., "Pacific Risk Information System" [PRIS].) A major gap in the models that can simulate the socioeconomic impact of disasters exists, however. The main problem in this respect is a lack of dependable primary data.
The (ICG/IOTWMS) --Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System -- formed after the tragic tsunami on December 26th, 2004. The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO coordinated the establishment of the System during several international and regional meetings, in 2005 at Kobe and Phuket. During its twenty-third Session (21-30 June 2005), the IOC Assembly established the ICG/IOTWMS. A United Nations conference held in January 2005 in Kobe, Japan agreed to the Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System. This was to initiate an International Early Warning Programme. Nanometrics (Ottawa, Canada) and RESULTS Marine Private Limited, India, successfully installed 17 Seismic VSAT stations with 2 Central Recording Stations. These could give alerts on seismic activity to scientists through SMS and E-mail automatically within short notice.
In 2006, UNESCO activated the system. It consisted of 25 seismographic stations and 26 national tsunami centers, as well as 6 Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) buoys. UNESCO emphasized the requirement for further coordination between governments and civilians at risk. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Ocean_Tsunami_Warning_System).
Apart from these dedicated sensors in the ocean, a large number of buoys and surface data gathering stations are located in the Indian Ocean, as shown in Figure ( 4 ) from the INCOIS website. A global network also exists across the world, shown in the Figure ( 2 ).
The U.S. Pacific Tsunami Warning Center in Hawaii along with the Japan Meteorological Agency, process data and forward it to the international media. Subsequently, National governments warn their affected citizens through SMS messages, broadcasts, sirens from dedicated platforms, mosque loudspeakers, and public media.
Apart from these, a framework for disaster management known as the Hyogo Framework was formulated by the UNISDR. The framework lists 5 basic points:
1. Ensuring that disaster risk reduction (DRR) is a national priority with institutional support for implementation
2. Identifying, assessing and monitoring disaster risks providing early warning
3. Building a culture of safety and resilience
4. Reducing underlying risk
5. Strengthening disaster preparedness at all levels
Fig 1: Mooring system used to detect tsunamis in deep water via DART that reports data
The mooring system used to detect tsunamis in deep water that report data in real time.
Fig 2:: http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/resources/oceanography-book/tsunamis.htm
Fig 3: Map of Eastern Bengal showing Rivers and Bay entrance
INDIAN OCEAN SCENARIO
The Early Warning Centre is supplied with National and International data. All seismic events larger than severity 6 are noted. In addition ocean bed BPR's are used to forewarn of Tsunamis. Apart from these 6 placed by the NIOT, Survey of India has installed 30 tide gages for the same purpose. All these are intended to warn of Tsunamis entering the region. A data prediction model has been developed and tested by the ICMAM, validating it on historical data.
Effects of Tsunamis on coastal regions especially mangroves have been analyzed by GIS and remote sensing. Results show that mangroves protect the shorelines from erosion caused by Tsunamis. UNIMS in Indonesia worked with local agencies to plan and coordinate activities anticipating future Tsunamis.