What is convergent evolution? Use evidence from the trees to explain how the Anolis lizards are an example of this concept.
The evolution, which simply means the development of something. There are various theories of evolution proposed the theory of evolution by Charles Darwin which explains biological evolution in the 1859 (origin of species).
This theory explained in which organisms changed over the time as a result of heritable physical or behavior according to the environment around the organisms
Evolution by the natural process in order to survive by adapting new physiological and autonomical changes.
The theory also explains evolution of new species depending upon the change from time to time along with the change in the surroundings, climatic conditions sources availability compare to the old.
Example: Dinosaurs into birds, Apes into humans, Amphibians into mammals, this was an example for macro evolution
The change in color or size observed in stages of generations is called micro evolution.
According to POBINER "mutations are basically the raw material on which evolution acts" which explains the natural selection occurs at the level of DNA & Genes.
These mutations occur due to errors in DNA application, radiation damages or repair mechanisms.
It is more prevalent in the next generation if it proves to be beneficial to the organism.
The above theory explains that natural selection is not only the process of organism evolution it can be also the genes which get transferred from one population to another known as gene flow. And also certain genes can change at random called genetic drift.
Evolution theory explains 3 different evolutions
1) Divergent evolution: when 2 different species share the same ancestral origin but have evolved differently are said to be divergent In evolution;
example: wooly mammoth and elephant originated from common ancestor but eventually led to 2 new species.
2) Convergent evolution: species with different ancestral origin but with similar features are convergent in evolution.
Example: this evolution is an example of adaption to similar condition and similar features but is not closely related.
(Flying squirrel and sugar glider)
3) Parallel evolution: it is the development of a similar trait in related, but distinct, species descending from the same ancestor, but from different clades.
Example: butterflies have close similarity in patterns of wing coloration among the families and with in the families.
Anoles Lizards: This lizard is found to be thin, medium sized, long head, pointed at ridges witheyes.
These lizards are mostly found in the south eastern states and some Caribbean islands.
It has a property to change its color from brown to bright green hence it also called as American chameleon.
This lizard belongs to the kingdom (animalia), phylum (chordata) .
This lizard explains the theory of convergent evolution .recently the anolis lizard have been the first reptile to have its complete genome sequence .this explained he divergence in thermal biology than in morphology.
These lizards had same structural niche and similar size and shape. But, the in habitat different climatic niche in which there was a variability in temperature of an environment. Hence this suggested that thermal physiology is more related to the recently diverged anolis lizards.
Anolis lizards have diverged to occupy a separate ecological niche's mostly within the vegetation on which they feed on.
These diverges in habitat showed morphological changes based on the location of habitat (crown of the tree, tree trunk, bark of the tree, under lying shrubs)
This explained both adaptive radiation and convergent evolution .these lizards occupied various niches on a tree as a community; each species developed its own distinct body type calledecomorph.
Finally this explained the convergent evolution of anolis from a tree.